part i writing (30 minutes)
what electives to choose
part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning ) (15 minutes)
universities branch out
as never before in their long history, universities have become instruments of national competition as well as instruments of peace. they are the place of the scientific discoveries that move economies forward, and the primary means of educating the talent required to obtain and maintain competitive advantage. but at the same time, the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services, information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.
in response to the same forces that have driven the world economy, universities have become more self-consciously global: seeking students form around the world who represent the entire range of cultures and values, sending their own students abroad to prepare them for global careers, offering courses of study that address the challenges of an interconnected world and collaborative (合作的) research programs to advance science for the benefit of all humanity.
of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping than the movement across borders. over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from 800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004. most travel from one developed nation to another, but the flow from developing to developed countries is growing rapidly. the reverse flow, from developed to developing countries, is on the rise, too. today foreign students earn 30 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the united states and 38 percent of those in the united kingdom. and the number crossing borders for undergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of the undergraduates at america’s best institutions and 10 percent of all undergraduates in the u.k. in the united states, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born, and in china many newly hired faculty members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.
universities are also encouraging students to spend some of their undergraduate years in another country. in europe, more than 140,000 students participate in the erasmus program each year, taking courses for credit in one of 2,200 participating institutions across the continent. and in the united states, institutions are helping place students in summer internships (实习) abroad to prepare them for global careers. yale and harvard have led the way, offering every undergraduate at least one international study or internship opportunity-and providing the financial resources to make it possible.
globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. one new trend involves sourcing portions of a research program to another country. yale professor and howard hughes medical institute investigator tian xu directs a research center focused on the genetics of human disease at shanghai’s fudan university, in collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. the shanghai center has 95 employees and graduate students working in a 4,300-square-meter laboratory facility. yale faculty, postdoctors and graduate students visit regularly and attend videoconference seminars with scientists from both campuses. the arrangement benefits both countries; xu’s yale lab is more productive, thanks to the lower costs of conducting research in china, and chinese graduate students, postdoctors and faculty get on-the-job training from a world-class scientist and his u.s. team.
as a result of its strength in science, the united states has consistently led the world in the commercialization of major new technologies, from the mainframe computer and the integrated circuit of the 1960s to the internet infrastructure (基础设施) and applications software of the 1990s. the link between university-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes highly visible: silicon valley was intentionally created by stanford university, and route 128 outside boston has long housed companies spun off from mit and harvard. around the world, governments have encouraged copying of this model, perhaps most successfully in cambridge, england, where microsoft and scores of other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the university.
for all its success, the united states remains deeply hesitant about sustaining the research-university model. most politician recognize the link between investment in science and national economic strength, but support for research funding has been unsteady. the budget of the national institutes of health doubled between 1998 and 2003, but has risen more slowly than inflation since then. support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pace with inflation during that same period. the attempt to make up lost ground is welcome, but the nation would be better served by steady, predictable increases in science funding at the rate of long-term gdp growth, which is on the order of inflation plus 3 percent per year.
american politicians have great difficulty recognizing that admitting more foreign students can greatly promote the national interest by increasing international understanding. adjusted for inflation, public funding for international exchanges and foreign-language study is well below the levels of 40 years ago. in the wake of september 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the number of foreign students seeking admission to u.s. universities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in australia, singapore and the u.k. objections from american university and business leaders led to improvements in the process and a reversal of the decline, but the united states is still seen by many as unwelcoming to international students.
most americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being through their scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten american competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. they fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students to the united states has two important positive effects: first, the very best of them stay in the states and ╟like immigrants throughout history-strengthen the nation; and second, foreign students who study in the united states become ambassadors for many of its most cherished (珍视) values when they return home. or at least they understand them better. in america as elsewhere, few instruments of foreign policy are as effective in promoting peace and stability as welcoming international university students.
1. from the first paragraph we know that present-day universities have become_________.
a) more and more research-oriented b) in-service training organizations
c) more popularized than ever before d) a powerful force for global integration
2. over the past three decades, the enrollment of overseas students has increased__________.
a) by 2.5 million b) by 800,000
c) at an annual rate of 3.9 percent d) at an annual rate of 8 percent
3. in the united states, how many of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born?
a) 10% b) 20% c)30% d)38%
4. how do yale and harvard prepare their undergraduates for global careers?
a) they organize a series of seminars on world economy.
b) they offer them various courses in international politics.
c) they arrange for them to participate in the erasmus program.
d)they give them chances for international study or internship.
5. an example illustrating the general trend of universities’ globalization is __________.
a) yale’s collaboration with fudan university on genetic research
b) yale’s helping chinese universities to launch research projects
c) yale’s students exchange program with european institutions
d) yale’s establishing branch campuses throughout the world
6. what do we learn about silicon valley from the passage?
a) it houses many companies spun off from mit and harvard.
b) it is known to be the birthplace of microsoft company.
c) it was intentionally created by stanford university.
d) it is where the internet infrastructure was built up.
7. what is said about the u.s. federal funding for research?
a) it has increased by 3 percent. b) it has been unsteady for years.
c) it has been more than sufficient. d) it doubled between 1998 and 2003.
8. the dramatic decline in the enrollment of foreign students in the u.s. after september 11 was caused by ____.
9. many americans fear that american competitiveness may be threatened by foreign students who will_____.
10. the policy of welcoming foreign students can benefit the u.s. in that the very best of them will stay and ___.
part iii listening comprehension (35 minutes)
11. a) she used to be in poor health. b) she was popular among boys.
c) she was somewhat over慰ght. d) she didn’t do well at high school.
12. a) at the airport. b) in a restaurant. c) in a booking office. d) at the hotel reception.
13. a) teaching her son by herself. b) having confidence in her son.
c) asking the teacher for extra help. d) telling her son not to worry.
14. a) have a short break. b) take two weeks off.
c) continue her work outdoors. d) go on vacation with the man.
15. a) he is taking care of his twin brother. b) he has been feeling ill all week.
c) he is worried about rod’s health. d) he has been in perfect condition.
16. a) she sold all her furniture before she moved house.
b) she still keeps some old furniture in her new house.
c) she plants to put all her old furniture in the basement.
d) she bought a new set of furniture from italy last month.
17. a) the woman wondered why the man didn’t return the book.
b) the woman doesn’t seem to know what the book is about.
c) the woman doesn’t find the book useful any more.
d) the woman forgot lending the book to the man.
18. a) most of the man’s friends are athletes. b) few people share the woman’s opinion.
c) the man doesn’t look like a sportsman. d) the woman doubts the man’s athletic ability.
questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. a) she has packed it in one of her bags. b) she is going to get it at the airport.
c) she has probably left it in a taxi. d) she is afraid that she has lost it.
20. a) it ends in winter. b) it will cost her a lot.
c) it will last one week. d) it depends on the weather.
21. a) the plane is taking off soon. b) the taxi is waiting for them.
c) there might be a traffic jam. d) there is a lot of stuff to pack.
22. a) at home. b) at the airport. c) in the man’s car. d) by the side of a taxi.
questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. a) she is thirsty for promotion. b) she wants a much higher salary.
c) she is tired of her present work. d) she wants to save travel expenses.
24. a) translator. b) travel agent. c) language instructor. d) environmental engineer.
25. a) lively personality and inquiring mind. b) communication skills and team spirit.
c) devotion and work efficiency. d) education and experience.
questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. a) they care a lot about children. b) they need looking after in their old age.
c) they want to enrich their life experience. d) they want children to keep them company.
27. a) they are usually adopted from distant places.
b) their birth information is usually kept secret.
c) their birth parents often try to conceal their birth information.
d) their adoptive parents don’t want them to know their birth parents.
28. a) they generally hold bad feelings towards their birth parents.
b) they do not want to hurt the feelings of their adoptive parents.
c) they have mixed feelings about finding their natural parents.
d) they are fully aware of the expenses involved in the search.
29. a) early adoption makes for closer parent-child relationship.
b) most people prefer to adopt children from overseas.
c) understanding is the key to successful adoption.
d) adoption has much to do with love.
questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
30. a) he suffered from mental illness. b) he bought the washington post.
c) he turned a failing newspaper into a success. d) he was once a reporter for a major newspaper.
31. a) she was the first woman to lead a big u.s. publishing company.
b) she got her first job as a teacher at the university of chicago.
c) she committed suicide because of her mental disorder.
d) she took over her father’s position when he died.
32. a) people came to see the role of women in the business world.
b) katharine played a major part in reshaping americans’ mind.
c) american media would be quite different without katharine.
d) katharine had exerted an important influence on the world.
questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
33. a) it’ll enable them to enjoy the best medical care. b) it’ll allow them to receive free medical treatment.
c) it’ll protect them from possible financial crises. d) it’ll prevent the doctors from overcharging them.
34. a) they can’t immediately get back the money paid for their medical cost.
b) they have to go through very complicated application procedures.
c) they can only visit doctor who speak their native languages.
d) they may not be able to receive timely medical treatment.
35. a) they don’t have to pay for the medical services.
b) they needn’t pay the entire medical bill at once.
c) they must send the receipts to the insurance company promptly.
d) they have to pay a much higher price to get an insurance policy.
more and more of the world’s population are living in towns or cities. the speed at which cities are growing in the less developed countries is (36)________. between 1920 and 1960 big cities in developed countries (37) ________ two and a half times in size, but in other parts of the world the growth was eight times their size.
the (38) _________ size of growth is bad enough, but there are now also very (39) _________ signs of trouble in the (40) ___________of percentages of people living in towns and percentages of people working in industry. during the nineteenth century cities grew as a result of the growth of industry . in europe the (41) ___________of people living in cities was always smaller than that of the (42) __________working in factories. now, however, the (43) ____________ is almost always true in the newly industrialized world : (44) ________.
without a base of people working in industry, these cities cannot pay for their growth; (45) _____________. there has been little opportunity to build water supplies or other facilities. (46) __________________ a growth in the number of hopeless and despairing parents and starving children.
part iv reading comprehension (reading in depth ) (25 minutes)
question 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
as war spreads to many corners of the globe, children sadly have been drawn into the center of conflicts. in afghanistan, bosnia, and colombia, however, groups of children have been taking part in peace education 47 . the children, after learning to resolve conflicts, took on the 48 of peacemakers. the children’s movement for peace in colombia was even nominated (提名) for the nobel peace prize in 1998. groups of children 49 as peacemakers studied human rights and poverty issues in colombia, eventually forming a group with five other schools in bogota known as the schools of peace.
the classroom 50 opportunities for children to replace angry, violent behaviors with 51 , peaceful ones. it is in the classroom that caring and respect for each person empowers children to take a step 52 toward becoming peacemakers. fortunately, educators have access to many online resources that are 53 useful when helping children along the path to peace. the young peacemakers campaign. the world centers of compassion for children international call attention to children’s rights and how to help the 55 of war. starting a peacemakers’ club is a praiseworthy venture for a class and one that could spread to other classrooms and ideally affect the culture of the 56 school.
a) acting b) assuming c) comprehensive d) cooperative e) entire
f) especially g) forward h) images i) information j) offers
k) projects l) respectively m) role n) technology o) victims
questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
by almost any measure, there is a boom in internet-based instruction. in just a few years, 34 percent of american universities have begun offering some form of distance learning (dl), and among the larger schools, it’s closer to 90 percent. if you doubt the popularity of the trend, you probably haven’t heard of the university of phoenix. it grants degrees entirely on the basis of online instruction. it enrolls 90,000 students, a statistic used to support its claim to be the largest private university in the country.
while the kinds of instruction offered in these programs will differ, dl usually signifies a course in which the instructors post syllabi (课程大纲), reading assignments, and schedules on websites, and students send in their assignments by e-mail. generally speaking, face-to-face communication with an instructor is minimized or eliminated altogether.
the attraction for students might at first seem obvious. primarily, there’s the convenience promised by courses on the net: you can do the work, as they say, in your pajamas (睡衣). but figures indicate that the reduced effort results in a reduced commitment to the course. while dropout rates for all freshmen at american universities is around 20 percent, the rate for online students is 35 percent. students themselves seem to understand the weaknesses inherent in the setup. in a survey conducted for ecornell, the dl division of cornell university, less than a third of the respondents expected the quality of the online course to be as good as the classroom course.
clearly, from the schools’ perspective, there’s a lot of money to be saved. although some of the more ambitious programs require new investments in severs and networks to support collaborative software, most dl courses can run on existing or minimally upgraded(升级) systems. the more students who enroll in a course but don’t come to campus, the more the schools saves on keeping the lights on in the classrooms, paying doorkeepers, and maintaining parking lots. and, while there’s evidence that instructors must work harder to run a dl course for a variety of reasons, they won’t be paid any more, and might well be paid less.
57. what is the most striking feature of the university of phoenix?
a) all its courses are offered online.
b) its online courses are of the best quality.
c) it boasts the largest number of students on campus.
d) anyone taking its online courses is sure to get a degree.
58. according to the passage, distance learning is basically characterized by _________.
a) a considerable flexibility in its academic requirements
b) the great diversity of students’ academic backgrounds
c) a minimum or total absence of face-to-face instruction
d) the casual relationship between students and professors
59. many students take internet-based courses mainly because they can ________.
a) earn their academic degrees with much less effort
b) save a great deal on traveling and boarding expense
c) select courses from various colleges and universities
d) work on the required courses whenever and wherever
60. what accounts for the high drop-out rates for online students?
a) there is no strict control over the academic standards of the courses.
b) the evaluation system used by online universities is inherently weak.
c) there is no mechanism to ensure that they make the required effort.
d) lack of classroom interaction reduces the effectiveness of instruction.
61. according to the passage, universities show great enthusiasm for dl programs for the purpose of ________.
a) building up their reputation b) cutting down on their expenses
c) upgrading their teaching facilities d) providing convenience for students
questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
in this age of internet chat, videogames and reality television, there is no shortage of mindless activities to keep a child occupied. yet, despite the competition, my 8-year-old daughter rebecca wants to spend her leisure time writing short stories. she wants to enter one of her stories into a writing contest, a competition she won last year.
as a writer i know about winning contests, and about losing them. i know what it is like to work hard on a story to receive a rejection slip from the publisher. i also know the pressures of trying to live up to a reputation created by previous victories. what if she doesn’t win the contest again? that’s the strange thing about being a parent. so many of our own past scars and dashed hopes can surface.
a revelation (启示) came last week when i asked her, “don’t you want to win again?” “no,” she replied, “i just want to tell the story of an angel going to first grade.”
i had just spent weeks correcting her stories as she spontaneously (自发地) told them. telling myself that i was merely an experienced writer guiding the young writer across the hall. i offered suggestions first grade was quickly “guided” by me into the tale of a little girl with a wild imagination taking her first music lesson. i had turned her contest into my contest without even realizing it.
staying back and giving kids space to grow is not as easy as it looks. because i know little about farm animals who use tools or angels who go to first grade. i had to accept the fact that i was co-opting (借用) my daughter’s experience.
while steeping back was difficult for me, it was certainly a good first step that i will quickly follow with more steps, putting myself far enough away to give her room but close enough to help if asked. all the while i will be reminding myself that children need room to experiment , grow and find their own voices.
62. what do we learn from the first paragraph?
a) children do find lots of fun in many mindless activities.
b) rebecca is much too occupied to enjoy her leisure time.
c) rebecca draws on a lot of online materials for her writing.
d) a lot of distractions compete for children’s time nowadays.
63. what did the author say about her own writing experience?
a) she did not quire live up to her reputation as a writer.
b) her way to success was full of pains and frustrations.
c) she was constantly under pressure of writing more.
d) most of her stories had been rejected by publishers.
64. why did rebecca want to enter this year’s writing contest?
a) she believed she possessed real talent for writing. b) she was sure of winning with her mother’s help.
c) she wanted to share her stories with readers. d) she had won a prize in the previous contest.
65. the author took great pains to refine her daughter’s stories because___________.
a) she believed she had the knowledge and experience to offer guidance.
b) she did not want to disappoint rebecca who needed her help so much
c) she wanted to help rebecca realize her dream of becoming a writer
d) she was afraid rebecca’s imagination might run wild while writing
66.what’s the author’s advice for parents?
a) a writing career, though attractive, is not for every child to pursuer.
b) children should be allowed freedom to grow through experience.
c) parents should keep an eye on the activities their kids engage in.
d) children should be given every chance to voice their opinions.
part iv cloze (15 minutes)
one factor that can influence consumers is their mood state. mood may be defined 67 a temporary and mild positive or negative feeling that is generalize and not tied 68 any particular circumstance. moods should be 69 form emotions which are usually more intense, 70 to specific circumstances, and often conscious. 71 one sense, the effect of a consumer’s mood can be thought of in 72 the same way as can our reactions to the 73 of our friends---when our friends are happy and “ up”, that tends to influence us positively, 74 when they are “down”, that can have a 75 impact on us. similarly, consumers operating under a 76 mood state tend to react to stimuli (刺激因素) in a direction 77 with that mood state. thus, for example, we should expect to see 78 in a positive mood state evaluate products in more of a 79 manner than they would when not in such a state. 80 , mood states appear capable of 81 a consumer’s memory.
moods appear to be 82 influenced by marketing techniques. for example, the rhythm, pitch, and 83 of music has been shown to influence behavior such as the 84 of time spent in supermarkets or 85 to purchase products. in addition, advertising can influence consumers’ moods which, in 86 , are capable of influencing consumers’ reactions to products.
67. a) as b) about c) by d) with
68. a) over b) under c) to d) up
69. a) derived b) descended c) divided d) distinguished
70. a) related b) referred c) attached d) associated
71. a) on b) in c) of d) by
72. a) thus b) much c) even d) still
73. a) signal b) gesture c) view d) behavior
74. a) for b) but c) unless d) provided
75. a) relative b) decisive c) negative d) sensitive
76. a) given b) granted c) fixed d) driven
77. a) resistant b) persistent c) insistent d) consistent
78. a) consumers b) businessmen c) serious d) manufacturers
79. a) casual b) critical c) serious d) favorable
80. a) however b) otherwise c) moreover d) nevertheless
81. a) lifting b) enhancing c) raising d) cultivating
82. a) readily b) rarely c) cautiously d) currently
83. a) step b) speed c) band d) volume
84. a) extent b) amount c) scope d) range
85. a) facilities b) capacities c) reflections d) intentions
86. a) turn b) total c) detail d) depth
part vi translation (5 minutes)
87. ________________（多亏了一系列的新发明）, doctors can treat this disease successfully.
88. in my sixties, one change i notice is that _________________ (我比以前更容易累了).
89. i am going to pursue this course, ____________________(无论我要作出什么样的牺牲).
90. i would prefer shopping online to shopping in a department store because __________（它更加方便和省时）.
91. many americans live on credit, and their quality of life ____________________（是用他们能够借到多少衡量的），not how much they can earn.
1-5 dcbda 6-7 cb
8. changes in the visa process
9. take their knowledge and skills back home
10. strengthen the nation
11-15 cdbad 16-20 bdcac
21-25 bacad 26-30 abcdb
36 alarming 37 increased 38 sheer 39 disturbing
40 comparison 41 proportion 42 workforce 43 reverse
44. the percentage of people living cities is much higher than the percentage working in industry.
45. there is not enough money to build adequate houses for the people that live there, let alone the new arrivals.
46. so the figures for the growth of towns and cities represent proportional growth of unemployment and underemployment.
47-56 kmajd gfioe
57-61 acdcb 62-66 dbcab
67-71 acdac 72-76 bdbca
77-81 dadcb 82-86 adbda
87. thanks for/due to series of new inventions
88. i feel/get tired more easily than before
89. no matter what sacrifice i am going to make/ whatever sacrifice i will make/ no matter how much i would sacrifice
90. it/ the former is more convenient and timesaving
91. is measured by how much they can borrow