part i writing (30 minutes)
directions: for this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter of apology according to the outline given below. you should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in chinese.
part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning) (15 minutes)
media selection for advertisements
after determining the target audience for a product or service, advertising agencies must select the appropriate media for the advertisement. we discuss here the major types of media used in advertising. we focus on attention on seven types of advertising: television, newspapers, radio, magazines, out-of-home, internet, and direct mail.
television in an attractive medium for advertising because it delivers mass audiences to advertisers. when you consider that nearly three out of four americans have seen the game show who wants to be a millionaire? you can understand the power of television to communicate with a large audience. when advertisers create a brand, for example, they want to impress consumers with the brand and its image. television provides an ideal vehicle for this type of communication. but television is an expensive medium, and not all advertisers can afford to use it.
television’s influence on advertising is fourfold. first, narrowcasting means that television channels are seen by an increasingly narrow segment of the audience. the golf channel, for instance, is watched by people who play golf. home and garden television is seen by those interested in household improvement projects. thus, audiences are smaller and more homogeneous (具有共同特点的) than they have been in the past. second, there is an increase in the number of television channels available to viewers, and thus, advertisers. this had also resulted in an increase in the sheer number of advertisements to which audiences are exposed. third, digital recording devices allow audience members more control over which commercials they watch. fourth, control over programming is being passed from the networks to local cable operators and satellite programmers.
after television, the medium attracting the next largest annual as revenue is newspapers. the new york times, which reaches a national audience, accounts for $1 billion in ad revenue annually. it has increased its national circulation (发行量) by 40% and is now available for home delivery in 168 cities. locally, newspapers are the largest advertising medium.
newspapers are a less expensive advertising medium than television and provide a way for advertisers to communicate a longer, more detailed message to their audience than they can through television. given new production techniques, advertisements can be printed in about 48 hours, meaning newspapers are also a quick way of getting the message out. newspapers are often the most important form of news for a local community, and they develop a high degree of loyalty from local readers.
advertising on radio continues to grow. radio is often used in conjunction with outdoor bill-boards (广告牌) and the internet to reach even more customers than television. advertisers are likely to use radio because it is a less expensive medium than television, which means advertisers can afford to repeat their ads often. internet companies are also turning to radio advertising. radio provides a way for advertisers to communicate with audience members at all times of the day. consumers listen to radio on their way to school or work, at work, on the way home, and in the evening hours.
two major changes—satellite and internet radio—will force radio advertisers to adapt their methods. both of these radio forms allow listeners to tune in stations that are more distant than the local stations they could receive in the past. as a result, radio will increasingly attract target audiences who live many miles apart.
newsweeklies, women’s titles, and business magazines have all seen increases in advertising because they attract the high-end market. magazines are popular with advertisers because of the narrow market that they deliver. a broadcast medium such as network television attracts all types of audience members, but magazine audiences are more homogeneous. if you read sports illustrated, for example, you have such in common with the magazine’s other readers. advertisers see magazines as an efficient way of reaching target audience members.
advertisers using the print media—magazines and newspapers—will need to adapt to two main changes. first, the internet will bring larger audiences to local newspapers. these audiences will be more diverse and geographically dispersed (分散) than in the past. second, advertisers will have to understand how to use an increasing number of magazines for their target audiences. although some magazines will maintain national audiences, a large number of magazines will entertain narrower audiences.
out-of-home advertising, also called place-based advertising, has become an increasingly effective way of reaching consumers, who are more active than ever before. many consumers today do not sit at home and watch television. using billboards, newsstands, and bus shelters for advertising is an effective way of reaching these on-the-go consumers. more consumers travel longer distances to and from work, which also makes out-of-home advertising effective. technology has changed the nature of the billboard business, making it a more effective medium than in the past. using the digital printing, billboard companies can print a billboard in 2 hours, compared with 6 days previously. this allows advertisers more variety in the types of messages they create because they can change their messages more quickly.
as consumers become more comfortable with online shopping, advertisers will seek to reach this market. as consumers get more of their news and information from the internet, the ability of television and radio to get the word out to consumers will decrease. the challenge to internet advertisers is to create ads that audience members remember.
internet advertising will play a more prominent role in organizations’ advertising in the near future. internet audiences tend to be quite homogeneous, but small. advertisers will have to adjust their methods to reach these audiences and will have to adapt their persuasive strategies to the inline medium as well.
a final advertising medium is direct mail, which uses mailings to consumers to communicate a client’s message. direct mail includes newsletters, postcards, and special promotion. direct mail is an effective way to build relationships with consumers. for many businesses, direct mail is the most effective form of advertising.
1. television is an attractive advertising medium in that ________.
a) it has large audiences
b) it appeals to housewives
c) it helps build up a company’s reputation
d) it is affordable to most advertisers
2. with the increase in the number of tv channels, ________.
a) the cost of tv advertising has decreased
b) the number of tv viewers has increased
c) advertisers’ interest in other media has decreased
d) the number of tv ads people can see has increased
3. compare with television, newspapers as an advertising medium _______.
a) earn a larger annual ad revenue
b) convey more detailed messages
c) use more production techniques
d) get messages out more effectively
4. advertising on radio continues to grow because _______.
a) more local radio stations have been set up
b) modern technology makes it more entertaining
c) it provides easy access to consumers
d) it has been revolutionized by internet radio
5. magazines are seen by advertisers as an efficient way to _______.
a) reach target audiences
b) appeal to educated people
c) attract diverse audiences
d) convey all kinds of messages
6. out-of-home advertising has become more effective because _______.
a) billboards can be replaced within two hours
b) consumers travel more now than ever before
c) such ads have been made much more attractive
d) the pace of urban life is much faster nowadays
7. the challenge to internet advertisers is to create ads that are ________.
a) quick to update
b) pleasant to look at
c) easy to remember
d) convenient to access
8. internet advertisers will have to adjust their methods to reach audiences that tend to be _______.
9. direct mail is an effective form of advertising for business to develop ________.
10. this passage discusses how advertisers select ________ for advertisements.
part iii listening comprehension (35 minutes)
11. a) given his ankle a good rest.
b) treat his injury immediately.
c) continue his regular activities.
d) be careful when climbing steps.
12. a) on a train.
b) on a plane.
c) in a theater.
d) in a restaurant.
13. a) a tragic accident.
b) a sad occasion.
c) smith’s unusual life story.
d) smith’s sleeping problem.
14. a) review the detail of all her lessons.
b) compare notes with his classmates.
c) talk with her about his learning problems.
d) focus in the main points of her lectures.
15. a) the man blamed the woman for being careless. b) the man misunderstood the woman’s apology.
c) the woman offered to pay for the man’s coffee. d) the woman spilt coffee on the man’s jacket.
16. a) extremely tedious.
b) hard to understand.
c) lacking a good plot.
d) not worth seeing twice.
17. a) attending every lecture.
b) doing lots of homework.
c) reading very extensively.
d) using test-taking strategies.
18. a) the digital tv system will offer different programs. b) he is eager to see what the new system is like.
c) he thinks it unrealistic to have 500 channels. d) the new tv system may not provide anything better.
questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. a) a notice by the electricity board.
b) ads promoting electric appliances.
c) the description of a thief in disguise.
d) a new policy on pensioners’ welfare.
20. a) speaking with a proper accent.
b) wearing an official uniform.
c) making friends with them.
d) showing them his id.
21. a) to be on the alert when being followed.
b) not to leave senior citizens alone at home.
c) not to let anyone in without an appointment.
d) to watch out for those from the electricity board.
22. a) she was robbed near the parking lot.
b) all her money in the bank disappeared.
c) the pension she had just drawn was stolen.
d) she was knocked down in the post office.
questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. a) marketing consultancy.
b) professional accountancy.
c) luxury hotel management.
d) business conference organization.
24. a) having a good knowledge of its customs.
b) knowing some key people in tourism.
c) having been to the country before.
d) being able to speak japanese.
25. a) it will bring her potential into full play.
b) it will involve lots of train travel.
c) it will enable her to improve her chinese.
d) it will give her more chances to visit japan.
questions 26 to 28 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
26. a) the lack of time.
b) the quality of life.
c) the frustrations at work.
d) the pressure on working families.
27. a) they were just as busy as people of today.
b) they saw the importance of collective efforts.
c) they didn’t complain as much as modern man.
d) they lived a hard life by hunting and gathering.
28. a) to look for creative ideas of awarding employees.
b) to explore strategies for lowering production costs.
c) to seek new approaches to dealing with complaints.
d) to find effective ways to give employees flexibility.
questions 29 to 31 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
29. a) family violence.
b) the great depression.
c) her father’s disloyalty.
d) her mother’s bad temper.
30. a) his advanced age.
b) his children’s efforts.
c) his improved financial condition.
d) his second wife’s positive influence.
31. a) love is blind.
b) love breeds love.
c) divorce often has disastrous consequences.
d) happiness is hard to find in blended families.
questions 32 to 35 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
32. a) it was located in a park.
b) its owner died of a heart attack.
c) it went bankrupt all of a sudden.
d) its potted plants were for lease only.
33. a) planting some trees in the greenhouse.
b) writing a want ad to a local newspaper.
c) putting up a going out of business sign.
d) helping a customer select some purchases.
34. a) opening an office in the new office park.
b) keeping better relations with her company.
c) developing fresh business opportunities.
d) building a big greenhouse of his own.
35. a) owning the greenhouse one day.
b) securing a job at the office park.
c) cultivating more potted plants.
d) finding customers out of town.
we’re now witnessing the emergence of an advanced economy based on information and knowledge. physical (36) ________, raw materials, and capital are no longer the key (37) ________ in the creation of wealth. now, the (38) _______ raw material in our economy is knowledge. tomorrow’s wealth depends on the development and exchange of knowledge. and (39) _______ entering the workforce offer their knowledge, not their muscles. knowledge workers get paid for their education and their ability to learn. knowledge workers (40) ________ in mind work. they deal with symbols: (41) ________, and data.
what does all this mean for you? as a future knowledge worker, you can expect to be (42) ________, processing, as well as exchanging information, (43) _______, three out of hour jobs involve some form of mind work, and that number will increase sharply in the future. management and employees alike (44)_______________________________________________________________________.
in the new world of work, you can look forward to being in constant training (45) _______________________________________________________________. and don’t wait for someone to “empower” you. you have to empower yourself.
part iv reading comprehension (reading in depth) (25 minutes)
some years ago i was offered a writing assignment that would require three months of travel through europe. i had been abroad a couple of times, but i could hardly _47_ to know my way around the continent. moreover, my knowledge of foreign languages was _48_ to a little college french.
i hesitated. how would i, unable to speak the language, _49_ unfamiliar with local geography or transportation systems, set up _50_ and do research? it seemed impossible, and with considerable _51_ i sat down to write a letter begging off. halfway through, a thought can through my mind: you can learn if you don’t try. so i accepted the assignment.
there were some bad _52_. but by the time i had finished the trip i was an experienced traveler. and ever since, i have never hesitated to head for even the most remote of places, without guiders or even _53_ bookings, confident that somehow i will manage.
the point is that the new, the different, is almost by definition _54_. but each time you try something, you learn, and as the learning piles up, the world opens to you.
i’ve learned to ski at 40, and flown up the rhine river in a _55_. and i know i’ll go on doing such things. it’s not because i’m braver or more daring than others. i’m not. but i’ll accept anxiety as another name for challenge and i believe i can _56_ wonders.
global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, but regardless of whether it is or isn’t ╟we won’t do much about it. we will argue over it and may even, as a nation, make some fairly solemn-sounding commitments to avoid it. but the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be observed.
al gore calls global warming an “inconvenient truth,” as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution. but the real truth is that we don’t know enough to relieve global warming, and ╟without major technological breakthroughs—we can’t do much about it.
from 2003 to 2050, the world’s population is projected to grow from 6.4 billion to 9.1 billion, a 42% increase. if energy use per person and technology remain the same, total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions (mainly, co2) will be 42% higher in 2050. but that’s too low, because societies that grow richer use more energy. we need economic growth unless we condemn the world’s poor to their present poverty and freeze everyone else’s living standards. with modest growth, energy use and greenhouse emissions more than double by 2050.
no government will adopt rigid restrictions on economic growth and personal freedom (limits on electricity usage, driving and travel) that might cut back global warming. still, politicians want to show they’re “doing something.” consider the kyoto protocol (京都议定书). it allowed countries that joined to punish those that didn’t. but it hasn’t reduced co2 emissions (up about 25% since 1990), and many signatories (签字国) didn’t adopt tough enough policies to hit their 2008-2012 targets.
the practical conclusion is that if global warming is a potential disaster, the only solution is new technology. only an aggressive research and development program might find ways of breaking dependence on fossil fuels or dealing with it.
the trouble with the global warming debate is that it has become a moral problem when it’s really an engineering one. the inconvenient truth is that if we don’t solve the engineering problem, we’re helpless.
57. what is said about global warming in the first paragraph?
a) it may not prove an environmental crisis at all.
b) it is an issue requiring world wide commitments.
c) serious steps have been taken to avoid or stop it.
d) very little will be done to bring it under control.
58. according to the author’s understanding, what is al gore’s view on global warming?
a) it is a reality both people and politicians are unaware of.
b) it is a phenomenon that causes us many inconveniences.
c) it is a problem that can be solved once it is recognized.
d) it is an area we actually have little knowledge about.
59. green house emissions will more than double by 2050 because of _______.
a) economic growth
b) the widening gap between the rich and poor
c) wasteful use of energy
d) the rapid advances of science and technology
60. the author believes that, since the signing of the kyoto protocol, ________.
a) politicians have started to do something to better the situation
b) few nations have adopted real tough measures to limit energy use
c) reductions in energy consumption have greatly cut back global warming
d) international cooperation has contributed to solving environmental problems
61. what is the message the author intends to convey?
a) global warming is more of a moral issue than a practical one.
b) the ultimate solution to global warming lies in new technology
c) the debate over global warming will lead to technological breakthroughs.
d) people have to give up certain material comforts to stop global warming.
someday a stranger will read your e-mail without your permission or scan the websites you’ve visited. or perhaps someone will casually glance through your credit card purchase or cell phone bills to find out your shopping preferences or calling habits.
in fact, it’s likely some of these things have already happened to you. who would watch you without your permission? it might be a spouse, a girlfriend, a marketing company, a boss, a cop or a criminal. whoever it is, they will see you in a way you never intended to be seen — the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked.
psychologists tell us boundaries are healthy, that it’s important to reveal yourself to friends, family and lovers in stages, at appropriate times. but few boundaries remain. the digital bread crumbs (碎屑) you leave everywhere make it easy for strangers to reconstruct who you are, where you are and what you like. in some cases, a simple google search can reveal what you think. like it or not, increasingly we live in a world where you simple cannot keep a secret.
the key question is: does that matter?
when opinion polls ask americans about privacy, most say they are concerned about losing it. a survey found an overwhelming pessimism about privacy, with 60 percent of respondents saying they feel their privacy is “slipping away, and that bothers me.”
but people say one thing and do another. only a tiny fraction of americans change any behaviors in an effort to preserve their privacy. few people turn down a discount at tollbooths (收费站) to avoid using the ez-pass system that can track automobile movements. and few turn down supermarket loyalty cards. privacy economist alessandro acquisti has run a series of tests that reveal people will surrender personal information like social security numbers just to get their hands on a pitiful 50-cents-off coupon (优惠券).
but privacy does matter ╟ at least sometimes. it’s like health: when you have it, you don’t notice it. only when it’s gone do you wish you’d done more to protect it.
62. what does the author mean by saying “the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked ”(lines 3-4, para.2)?
a) people’s personal information is easily accessed without their knowledge.
b) in the 21st century people try every means to look into others’ secrets.
c) people tend to be more frank with each other in the information age.
d) criminals are easily caught on the spot with advanced technology.
63. what would psychologists advise on the relationships between friends?
a) friends should open their hearts to each other.
b) friends should always be faithful to each other.
c) there should be a distance even between friends.
d) there should be fewer disputes between friends.
64. why does the author say “we live in a world where you simple cannot keep a secret” (line 5, para.3)?
a) modern society has finally evolved into an open society.
b) people leave traces around when using modern technology.
c) there are always people who are curious about others’ affairs.
d) many search engines profit by revealing people’s identities.
65. what do most americans do with regard to privacy protection?
a) they change behaviors that might disclose their identity.
b) they use various loyalty cards for business transactions.
c) they rely more and more on electronic devices.
d) they talk a lot but hardly do anything about it.
66. according to the passage, privacy is like health in that ________.
a) people will make every effort to keep it
b) its importance is rarely understood
c) it is something that can easily be lost
d) people don’t cherish it until they lose it
part v cloze (15 minutes)
universities are institution that teach a wide variety of subjects at advanced levels. they also carry out research work aimed _67_ extending man’s knowledge of these subjects. the emphasis given to each of these functions _68_ from university to university, according to the views of the people in _69_ and according to the resources available. the smaller and newer universities do not _70_ the staff or equipment to carry out the _71_ research projects possible in larger institutions. _72_ most experts agree that some research activity is _73_ to keep the staff and their students in _74_ with the latest developments in their subjects.
most students attend a university mainly to _75_ the knowledge needed for their chosen _76_. educationists believe that this aim should not be the _77_ one. universities have always aimed to produce men and women _78_ judgment and wisdom as well as knowledge. for this reason, they _79_ students to meet others with differing _80_ and to read widely to _81_ their understanding in many fields of study. _82_ a secondary school course, a student should be interested enough in a subject to enjoy gaining knowledge for its own _83_. he should be prepared to _84_ sacrifices to study his chosen _85_ in depth. he should have an ambition to make some 86 contribution to man’s knowledge.
67. a) at
part vi translation (5 minutes)
87. our efforts will pay off if the results of this research ___________________(能应用于新技术的开发)。
88. i can’t boot my computer now. something ___________(一定出了什么毛病) with its operation system.
89. leaving one’s job, ________________(不管是什么工作), is a difficult change, even for those who look forward to retiring.
90. __________________________ (与我成长的地方相比), this town is more prosperous and exciting.
91. _________________________________(直到他完成使命) did he realize that he was seriously ill.
part i writing（作文答案略）
part Ⅱ 快速阅读答案
1. a) it has large audiences
2. d) the number of tv ads people can see has increased
3. b) convey more detailed messages
4. c) it provides easy access to consumers
5. a) reach target audiences
6. b) consumers travel more now than ever before
7. c) easy to remember
8. quite homogeneous, but small.
9. relationships with consumers
10. the appropriate media
part Ⅲ 听力
11. a) give his ankle a good rest.
12. c) in a theater.
13. b) a sad occasion.
14. d) focus on the main points of her lectures.
15. d) the woman split coffee on the man’s skirt.
16. b) hard to understand.
17. a) attending every lecture.
18. d) the new tv program may not provide anything better.
19. c) the description of a thief in disguise.
20. d) showing them his id.
21. c) not to let anyone in without an appointment.
22. c) the pension she had just drawn was stolen.
23. a) marketing consultancy.
24. d) being able to speak japanese.
25. b)it will involve lots of train travel.
26. a) the lack of time.
27. a) they were just as busy as people of today.
28. d) to find effective ways to give employees flexibility.
29. b) the great depression.
30. d) his second wife’s positive influence.
31. b) love breeds love.
32. b) its owner died of a heart stroke.
33. c) putting up a going out of business sing.
34. c) developing fresh business opportunities.
35. a. owning the greenhouse one day.
44) will be making decisions in such areas as product development, quality control, and customer satisfaction.
45) to acquire new skills that will help you keep up with the improved technologies and procedures
46) don t expect the companies to provide you with a clearly-defined career path.
part Ⅳ 阅读理解
47. d) claim
48. h) limited
49. o) totally
50. g) interviews
51. m) regret
52. j) moments
53. b) advanced
54. n) scary
55. c) balloon
56. a) accomplish
57. d) very little will be done to bring it under control.
58. c) it is a problem that can be solved once it is recognized.
59. a) economic growth.
60. b) few nations have adopted real tough measures to limit energy use.
61. b) the ultimate solution to global warming lies in new technology.
62. a) people’s personal information is easily accessed without their knowledge.
63. c) there should be a distance even between friends.
64. b) people leave traces around when using modern technology.
65. d) they talk a lot but hardly do anything about it.
66. d) people don’t cherish it until they lost it.
part Ⅴ 完形
67. a) at
68. d) varies
69. c) control
70. b) possess
71. d) vast
72. a) but
73. b) essential
74. c) touch
75. a) acquire
76. b) profession
77. d) only
78. a) with
79. c) encourage
80. c) interests
81. a) broaden
82. b) after
83. d) sake
84. b) make
85. a) field
86. c) meaningful
part vi translation
87. our efforts will pay off if the results of the research can be applied to the development of new technology.（能应用于新技术的开发）
88. i can’t boot my computer now. something must be wrong （一定出了毛病）with its operating system.
89. leaving one’s job, no matter what job it is /whatever job it is, （无论是什么工作）is a difficult change, even for those who look forward to retiring.
90. compared with the place (in which/where) i grow up, （与我成长的地方相比）this town is more prosperous and exciting.
91. not until he finished his mission （直到他完成使命）did he realize that he was seriously ill.